FAO-DSP Triple Helix Governance Model

The Resource-base

The natural resource base Pakistan’s Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) have been the sites of international conflicts. The region is mostly mountainous and arid, rich in natural resources, predominantly livestock like sheep, goats, cattle, buffaloes, and poultry. The total value of livestock heads is Rs.1.09 trillion (US $10 billion). However, the huge resource base can neither provide good economic return to the producers, nor quality food to the consumers. These holdings threaten public health safety.

The main reasons behinds this state of affairs are poor socio-economic status of the farmers, lack of resources and focus on part of the state institutions, and a hostile marketing system. Under Integrated Development Strategy 2014-2018 of KP (Sustainable and effective local government system), improved citizens participation has been proposed that empowers communities at grassroots level. In a state of limited fiscal resources, either more revenue needs be generated from additional sources or existing resources must be better allocated. Increased fiscal space for social development calls for effective policy oversight and an accountable resource management system for sustainable fiscal space. Under “Entrepreneurship”, industrial development for economic growth and job creation, improved enabling environment for private sector including SMEs and cottage industry through entrepreneurial friendly regulatory framework and other support has been proposed.

An important source for SMEs has been identified as the Livestock SMEs, comprising dairy farms located in the urban areas, and sheep, goats, and poultry farms in the rural regions. The medium-sized farms, factories, and marketing chain lack quality standards and have failed to provide the due financial return to the farmers and food of acceptable quality to the consumers. These facilities will be converted into viable enterprises, capable of creating self-employment for the youth and hygienic food for the people of KP to support food security and export.

The sector issues

  • Poor practices at farmers’ and industry level and limited scope of education system create hurdles in food safety and entrepreneurship
  • Slaughter houses/poultry butchers delivering meat contaminated with dung, flies, cats and dogs create threats to public health
  • Rising level of unemployment and underutilized/unskilled labor at farms, factories and marketing networks
  • Price capping of livestock products restricts industrialization
  • Utilization of medium-sized farms for entrepreneurship, technical, financial, marketing & regulatory support to these units is not included in mandate of any government/other agencies
  • Private companies selling meat/milk items of unknown quality and Halal status, at inappropriate rates
  • Input suppliers are grabbing the major share of farmers’ produce and deliver low quality inputs
  • Live birds/livestock transportation and marketing in open places and vehicles contaminate the environment and present a dirty picture of the Region and the Muslims
  • Marketing dead/diseased animals/birds and their food products with no check on Halal/hygienic status
  • Halal bones are exported at throw away prices and Haram gelatin is imported at very high rates
  • Legal courts ban import of useful products and export of economically viable products

Corrective measures

Minister LGE&RD briefed on Peshawar Meat Company Prof M Subhan Qureshi, Dean FAHVS/Chief Patron Dairy Science Park made a presentation before the Senior Minister LGE&RD, Mr Inayatullah Khan during March 2014. The meeting was attended by the UAP Vice Chancellor, Professor Zahoor Ahmad Swati, senior faculty members, Deputy Commissioner Mardan and Peshawar and senior officers of the KP Local Government and Agriculture Department. Representatives of Smeda, Khyber Chamber of Commerce and Industry and KP Board of Investment and Trade also participated in the meeting. The role of the university in developing feasible farming models for broilers, quails, rabbits, sheep, goats and beef animals was highlighted.

The university organized two international workshops under the Dairy Science Park, participated by experts from the academia, development organizations, business and farming communities. Both the conferences concluded with sets of recommendations for improving 4 efficiency of the relevant organizations and groups in producing clean meat and were extensively discussed by expert committees comprising stakeholders. Professor Qureshi proposed establishment of Peshawar Meat Company to be operated jointly by the university, the local government, KPCCI, Smeda and KP-BoIT. Degree and diploma courses, short trainings will be offered for graduates to literate farmers and university model slaughter house and meat technology centre will be established for this purpose.

The minister urged upon improvement in the slaughter houses and advised to launch development projects under provincial ADP. (Source: Business Recorder, March 2014). A meeting was held to review the progress regarding new project on academic support to the livestock industry under the Dairy Science Park, the Agriculture University Peshawar. In this regard, a delegation of Dairy Science Park (DSP), held a meeting with the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Senior Minister for Local Government and Rural Development Inayatullah Khan. The delegation comprised Professor M Subhan Qureshi Dean FAHVS, University of Agriculture Peshawar; Professor Sarzamin Khan, Dr Niaz Ali KMU, Mr Zafar Hussain Feed Industry, Engr. Irfan Qureshi Chief Executive DSP, Dr Asad Sultan, Dr Rajwali Khan UAP, Dr Abdur Rashid Peshawar University; and Riaz Hussain, Hafeezur Rahman and Kamran Khan.

While briefing the provincial minister, Subhan Qureshi said the people of urban areas of KP are exposed to livestock products coming from unhygienic farming system in the province, adulterated milk and even dead birds imported into the province. He suggested that the local administration instead of supporting the local producers, has capped the prices of milk and meat produced in the province. Quershi elaborated the prices of farm inputs were uncontrolled while the prices of milk and meat are controlled through a flat rate, irrespective of the quality, grade and presence of toxins, pathogens and adulterants.

The Dairy Science Park has offered their services through veterinary and medical experts and representative of the industry and the administration, he added. The dean said the people of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and FATA being faced with critical challenges like terrorist attacks on schools, universities, markets and mosques. Qurehi said the terrain of KP is different from rest of the country, being hilly, mountainous and arid, with little availability of irrigated and cultivated land and development support. However, he said the stereotyped policy has kept the development process subordinate to Punjab where irrigated land, good breeds of animals and abundance of animals, feeds and fodders are available.

Prof Qureshi has been involved with the provincial and federal governments, the academia and private sector for a long period of 36 years. The current model has been developed through extensive interaction with the stakeholders during this period. The development programs of provincial and federal government utilize funds for various projects, but with negligible impact on farm resource-base. As a result, the sector is facing socio economic pressure, compelling farmers to change the business. Especially the young educated family members look at the miserable conditions of their parents and try to avoid joining farming business.

Prof Qureshi opted for working at private buffalo farms for his PhD thesis research on nutrition-reproduction interaction in dairy buffaloes. A close contact with the miserable people led to production of Chief Minister Development Plan on advice of CM Office Letter dated 30-11-1998, for productive utilization of the livestock resources to bring prosperity and stable peace in the region.  The Plan was endorsed vide letter of CM Office dated 8-1-2003, for implementation which was ignored. CM Office again endorsed establishment of Task Force on Dairy Science Park vide letter dated 2-8-2017, with no result. The author continued working on academia-industry-government interaction and was successful in protecting several emerging entrepreneurship models across livestock value chain; organized biennial series of international conferences and industrial exhibitions on DSP and popularized Biorisk management through sponsorship of Sandia National Labs USA.

Konya Technopark and Dairy Science Park Collaboration:

Konya Teknokent (Technopark), Selçuk University, Konya, Turkey, hosted the Fourth International Conference and Industrial Exhibition on Dairy Science Park 2017. Konya Teknokent has been mandated to provides important support to the production and service sector in terms of increasing competitive power, improving quality and productivity by producing new products, improved products, new technologies and improved technologies. As the continuation of the 7th Framework Program, the Horizon 2020 Program (2014-2020) encourages innovation in research and strengthen industrial-academia collaboration.

Founded five years ago, Konya Teknokent has become one of the fastest developing Technoparks of the country with its 107 firms in its field today. The Rectorate of Selçuk University has assigned Konya Teknokent to the Technology Development Zone of Selçuk University of 5000 m2 in Alaaddin Keykubat Campus in order to start its activities immediately without waiting for Konya Teknokent to build its own buildings. The delegates of the Fourth International Conferee and Industrial Exhibition on Dairy Science Park visited Konya Teknokent (Technopark) on third day of the conference, under supervision of Dr Mithat Direk.

The delegates, more than fifty from Pakistan including others from various countries, visited Konya Teknokent on 3 November, were excited to know about the achievements made at the Teknokent. Prof Birol, head of the organization was not available on the day of our visit to Teknokent and we were given a presentation by Mr Mehmet. An MoU was signed between Konya Teknokent and Dairy Science Park for collaboration in Smart Energy programs, sharing success stories in food processing, quality control and marketing and sharing ARGE activities in Information Technologies, Agricultural Technologies, Biotechnology, Design Technologies, Environment and Energy Technologies and Defense Industries.

FAO-DSP Governance Model

Prof M Subhan Qureshi worked for Policy reforms through Triple Helix Model of Academia Industry-Society Government Nexus. A biennial series of international conferences and industrial exhibitions was held consistently from 2011 up to 2020. Three conferences were held at Peshawar (2011, 2013, 2015) and Quetta (2019) Pakistan and one at Konya (2017) Turkey. The first conference focused on “Developing a hub of dairy enterprises in the flood affected regions of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa through partnership of academia, government, entrepreneurs & civil society”. Policy recommendations were prepared in consultation of all the stakeholders. Prof KB Marwat, Vice Chancellor University of Agriculture Peshawar was the Patron. The second conference was organized jointly with KP Chamber of Commerce and Industries (KPCCI). The Chamber motivated livestock farmers, products processor and traders to establish organized business companies and enter into formal market. Businss Forum was held comprising representatives from Pakistan, Afghanistan and Turkey. President KPCCI Peshawar and Dr Mithat Direct, Selcuk University Turkey were the driving forces behind the event. The third conference was patronized by Mr Inayatullah Khan, Senior Minister Local Government KP province who declared it as a bridge between academia and government for policy formulation and implementation focused at building knowledge based economy. A high level meeting of the representatives of the Department of the Local Government, Election and Rural Government Department; Agriculture, Livestock and Cooperatives Department, the University of Agriculture Peshawar and the private sector was held on 3-3-2016 chaired by the Senior Minister, LGE&RD, Mr Inayatullah Khan. The Senior Minister appreciated the progress made so far under the Dairy Science Park and directed for initiation of a summary for approval of the Chief Minister, regarding academic component at the University of Agriculture Peshawar and preparation of an Act for establishing an autonomous DSP Board for boosting Halal meat export in the Region. The Chief Minister KP approved a summary for launching a Task Force on Dairy Science Park with the mandate of developing the livestock sector on commercial lines. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations engaged Prof M Subhan Qureshi as National Consultant Livestock with the mutually agreed TORs requiring development of the Action Plan with estimated budget for Livestock Sector Development and Transformation, based on KP Livestock Policy; covering regulatory issues, value chain development, private sector engagement and overall required capacity at provincial and district levels; to elaborate on roles and responsibilities of various stakeholders focused on institutional reforms; review the current policy/strategies/program and align livestock sector priorities. All the participants except representative of the DG LDD Ext agreed on establishment of an autonomous body with full administrative, legislative, regulatory and financial authority. Livestock Technopark Peshawar (LTP) was suggested by this Mission, on the basis of FAO opinion on good governance, to build institutions and mechanisms that provide international norms, standards and data, promote international cooperation, and support an enabling environment for effective collective action to solve problems that cannot be addressed, or as effectively addressed, working at national level alone. The LTP would be an autonomous corporate body with legislative, regulatory, financial and administrative power to support entrepreneurship development and protect interests of the producers, processors, service providers and marketing partners.

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